Final Project: Character Development

A good story must be character-led. A picture book has usually a main protagonist sometimes two as in my story. I see my characters as actors who must physically embody the poses, movements and emotions needed to tell the story of two best friends who fall out over a misunderstanding and realise they miss each other terribly. The narrative runs true for a pre-school child who can easily have tantrums with his best friend over anything if he/she doesn’t get her way. The trick is to make it interesting enough for the child to want to read on and see what next.

In order to achieve this the characters must be rounded and three dimensional. They must have faults too.  Little Miss Perfect would be boring and totally unrealistic if she was to behave the same way from beginning to end. For Max and Misty I designed a list of words that describe them emotionally. I also designed their bedroom as characters are never isolated from their settings. I also felt a bedroom shows a lot about a character’s personality.


photo 2photo 1




This approach apart from designing the bedroom in collage didn’t depart too much from the way I begin a storytelling. Dogs come more naturally as I grew up with one and I now have a lovely yellow labrador. Whereas cats are more of a challenge as I have never had any. I had to study their anatomy more, their skeleton and their personality etc..I then looked at lot of pictures of cats and dogs and watch youtube videos to understand how they move.


Another problem is I wasnt happy with the name of my cat. I kept changing it. It started with Cleo, then Coco, then Ernest to Misty for which I settled. Max and Misty had a nice ring. I liked the alliteration and the contrast between a one and a two syllable name.


Misty 2



Still, it took a lot more sketches for Misty than for Max. I started in pencil but because I kept rubbing out, I decided to use pen and ink instead. I had a few happy accidents that boosted my confidence.

Once I was happy with their shape, their colouring, I put them in situation alone and then together.



Capturing the essence of Max and Misty proved a lot more difficult than I had anticipated. Keeping them looking the same on every page was even harder. Keep the same outline, the same eyes, the same number of whiskers, the same rounded ears, the same floppy ears, think of the way the fur moves etc…I also studied children’s in the park, in the street to look at their body language, their expressions. I even looked at myself in the mirror for expressions. I gave Max a red collar to make him  straight away recognisable. To identify him from the Wild beasts, Sendak had given a wolf suit to his main character Max (I also called my puppy Max for this reason and my dog is also called Max). I gave Misty white paws and the tip of her tail is white.

Finally, Max and Misty had to be equal. They are given the same number of lines, the same number of pages, they both had to be likeable and they both have to change in their own right. And of course, I didn’t want any hidden patronising message. This story could happen to real children who fall out and make up as friendship prevails.

I was then able to draw the roughs,  create a new storyboard, import them in inDesign to construct a dummy book. This in turn gave me a tool to evaluate the layout and the composition.

I decided that the some of the events had to be changed to make the misunderstanding clearer between the two friends. On Misty;s side of the story, Max appeared to big on the page compared to her etc…. The actions didn’t show her personality enough. Misty is calmer and tidier. She had to be seen brushing her teeths!

It is at this point that I added the text… a whole new ballgame!



Planning and Exploring ideas

I touched on the conventions of the picture book genre and already alerted of my intention of breading some of these rules.

In a nutshell, I am exploring the idea of having a double sided book that will tell the same story from each character’s point of view and the resolution in the middle of the book!  I felt the idea was challenging and exciting to keep me going for months. I must confess that I have never seen it done before and maybe there is a reason for it.  I will have to find out if such books exist.

The second thing I decided to change was my working process. And because I am used to writing the text first, I had decided to change my working process to develop a more visual way of thinking. I therefore sketched characters first as I also decided to have a character led story as I usually start with a plot and then create characters to inhabit my world.

Once I had decided my characters would be two animals, the logical step was to choose them. Initially I settled for a bear and a penguin. Everyt ime I drew them, I felt I was too  influenced by Oliver Jeffers and Catherine Rayner’s styles, who both created books with the animals. So much so that I had to give them up and chose something that would enable me artistic freedom and I elected a dog and a cat.

I sketched the dog easily and chose his name Max very easily too. I even drew him from life (which made things a lot easier) and from pictures when he was a puppy. I also studied the anatomy of dogs to include some realistic features. Moving on to the cat was trickier. I do not have one and every time I went to my neighbour’s to draw her from life, I was sneezing away and discovered my allergy was worse than I thought. I had to study cats a lot more to understand their temperament too. I struggled a lot and couldn’t settle for a name either.

Cat sketches   image  image


I therefore decided that to change my mind on one decision I had made earlier might do the trick. I wrote the story in full. Straight into 12 spreads even though I knew I would alter the format.Self editing would have to be done later to cut the  800 to about 500 words. Nevertheless, having the story in words led to  thumbnail sketches .

Putting them in a storyboard format makes it more obvious to evaluate what works and what doesn’t. My story had subplots that made me cram sequences in. It was so confusing that instead of writing less I would have to write more. I would need to choose what to leave out and what to show in images more carefully. But the biggest problem was I didn’t have enough room to expand on each character.  Let me explain.  A picture book has 12 double page spread or 16 for longer ones and tell a story from beginning to end. In my case, I had 6 double spread for each of my character, an overcomplicated story or stories even.

I added 2 more double page spreads for each which gave a lot more scope to understand who they were and what they were doing.I also analysed the books of authors illustrators that I liked and tried to understand what worked or what didn’t. I annotated as if I had to write an essay about them. I split the images from the text as well. It became apparent that the more simple the books were, the more appealing they were. To get a similar result was going to take a lot more planning.


Starting again :retying sequencing and layout – keeping what worked, back to the beginning….

Initial ideas

Everything happens here


Final Project: As many styles as books!

So far, I have looked at Maurice Sendak and Oliver Jeffers and definitely got a sense there is more to picture books than meet the eye.

I am also very fortunate as I had the chance to meet some artists at conferences and seminars.  Last year I attended a workshop with the very successful and talented author/illustrator Catherine Rayner at the SCBWI conference. (Society of Children’s Book Writers and Illustrators).

Catherine and I

The workshop was fun and extremely productive.  We worked as a team and in a day had to come up with plot and characters on a given theme. We also had to imagine the wordless story that Catherine had illustrated and constructed as a dummy book.  For both assignments, we all came up with different stories and different angles. For me, this epitomizes the versatility of the picture book genre even though more often than not it follows a set of rules as to the number of pages, the layout and the word count.  I will come back to this later as I do not intent to follow any rules – the cornerstone of my final project.

Meeting a professional and spending the day with them is worth months of art school in my eyes. When they are as generous and bubbly as Catharine, they share a lot of their experience and tips. It also must be incredibly lovely to step out of the studio and meet like minded people, who share your passion for books!

Catherine described a daily routine as being different every day depending on the project she works on. Similarly, each and every one of her books started in a slightly different way. But it is soon obvious that the artist always starts with the main character for whom she devises a narrative. She would start drawing him/her ( they are all animals) in an obsessive way. For her first book, she was still a student and loved drawing tigers. She went to the zoo (many many times) to draw them from life. She also names them. In this case, Augustus was not smiling (it is hard to draw a smiling tiger) so he had to find his smile. It is as if the character she creates whispers the story in her ear.


Front cover


Augustus is looking!





Sylvia was lonely and wanted a friend.


Sylvia and the bird

Iris and Isaac fell out …


And Abigail…well you will have to find out for yourself!



What’s happening to Abigail then?

Rayner loves working with scale and cropping details off the page –  playing with angles and viewpoints. The visual effect is heightened and seems to have happened by magic. It is at this point that storyboarding comes handy to check what works and what doesn’t at a glance. I would sum up storyboarding as mapping the whole story.

Rayner’s colour palette is subtle. I was convinced she used watercolour but in fact she uses acrylic inks, which make the artwork really vivid.  I will definitely experiment with this medium.

Another one to experiment with Dr Ph Martin watercolour ink which is used by the renowned illustrator Emma Chichester Clark, who studied at RCA with Quinten Blake and Michael Foreman. She writes her books, illustrates for authors such as Michael Morpurgo, Martin Waddell, and also illustrated for magazines…



I love you Blue Kangoroo


Melrose and Croc


During the conference last November, I also met Alexis Deacon, one the ten best illustrators selected by Booktrust. Beegu is a story about being different and not belonging so Deacon played on the contrast of colours: a yellow alien on a grey background (representing the unwelcoming world Beegu finds himself in.) Scale is also extremely important and everything is looked at through a child’s point of view. The sequencing below shows how effective Deacon conveys Beegu’s loneliness with almost no word!





Last year I also attended a picture book retreat run by Bridget Streven Marzo and Anne Marie Perks. Again I met extremely talented writers and artists. Helen Stephens was one of them. She wrote and illustrated How to hide a lion, and shared with us the process of creating Fleabag. Her stories are also character driven. I will write about character development in another post.



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Helen Stephens

Helen Stephens


Storyboard for Fleabag

Storyboard for Fleabag












Rough for Fleabag

Rough for Fleabag





Fleabag final artwork

Final artwork






Looking through all these talented artists’  wonderful sketchbooks highlighted how much planning and work happened behind the scene for just one book even though the stories appeared to flow simply and be totally accessible for a child to enter a world other than his own. To be a successful experience, the world has to become accessible and believable from the first page.

What makes a picture book different from any other narrative art is the word ‘book’ itself. When a  book is put down on a shelf, its world is closed off. But when you open it, the magic starts again and each page turn offers a different space or time. It can even happen in strips like in comic books or in vignettes. As the child reads on, the whole story builds up to a satisfying resolution. Well this is the plan as ideas are still brewing as we speak.

The few examples I have looked here at here such as the scale, the colour palette, the sequencing are things I intend to draw inspiration from for my own story.